Presentation on theme: "Homework Review Assignment #2 due tomorrow.. 9 th Grade Global History Review June 3, 2015."— Presentation transcript:
1 Homework Review Assignment #2 due tomorrow.
2 9 th Grade Global History Review June 3, 2015
3 I. Neolithic Revolution (10,000 B.C. – 3000 B.C.) -People stop being nomadic, create the first permanent settlements (villages/cities). This leads to: The first governments and civilizations. The start of farming and domestication of animals.
4 II. Early River Valley Civilizations Mesopotamia (Iraq) – Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Egypt – Nile River Indus River Valley / Harappan Civilization (India) – Indus and the Ganges Rivers. Ancient China – Huang He (Yellow) and Yangtze Rivers Established near rivers because of the three F’s: Fertile soil, fresh water supply, food source.
5 III. Hammurabi’s Code Created in Mesopotamia by King Hammurabi of the Babylonian Empire. One of the first written codes of laws “Eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.” Social classes were treated differently (rich were treated better than the poor, men were treated better than women).
6 IV. Ancient Greece Geography: Very mountainous, leads Greece to be divided into separate city-states. Sparta (militaristic, “jocks”) vs. Athens (artistic, intellectual, “nerds”) Athens had a direct democracy (citizens vote directly on all laws) under Pericles, great philosophers (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle), amazing art and architecture that the United States has copied.
7 V. Ancient Rome Originally a republic (representative democracy), later becomes an Empire that conquers much of the world. Empire is united by a strong system of roads used for trade (similar to the Han Dynasty in China) Greatest contribution to western society – legal system (Twelve Tables).
8 VI. Hinduism (India) Caste System (Varna) – Strict class system Reincarnation – When you die, your soul is born again in a different form. Karma: All the good and bad deeds you commit in your life Dharma: Duties that you owe to your caste. Do your dharma to get good karma and move up in the varna (caste system)
9 VII. Confucianism (China) Confucius: Philosopher in China who wants to create a peaceful, orderly society. – People are naturally good. They should become educated so they can work improve themselves and the world. – People should accept their place in society (“The Five Relationships”). Children and young people should show respect for their parents and elders (filial piety). Other major philosophy in China is Daoism (live in harmony with nature, “go with the flow.” Shintoism in Japan and animism in Africa also stress the importance of nature (both state that all living and nonliving things in nature are made up of spirits that need to be worshipped).
10 VIII. Buddhism (India / China) Founded by Siddartha Gautama (Buddha). Teaches the Four Nobles Truths: – All life is full of suffering – Suffering is caused by desire – The way to eliminate suffering is to eliminate desire. – Following the Eightfold Path will help people overcome desire. – Goal: Nirvana (union with the universe and release from the cycle of birth and death).
11 IX. Islam (followers are Muslims) Monotheistic religion (just like Judaism and Christianity) Founded by Muhammad. Holy book in the Qur’an, people pray in mosques, follow the Five Pillars: – Faith in one god (Allah) – Praying five times a day in the direction of Mecca (city where Muhammad was born) – Help the poor – Fast during the holy month of Ramadan – Visit the holy city of Mecca at least once in your lifetime (hajj). Muslim Empire in the Middle East (600’s-1200’s) preserves Greek and Roman knowledge, has major accomplishments in art, literature, philosophy, medicine and math (create algebra)
12 X. Africa - Bantu Migrations (500 B.C – 1500 AD) One of the largest migrations of people in history. Due to a shortage of land, the Bantu people scattered throughout southern Africa over the course of 2,000 years. As they moved, they spread three things: – Bantu language – Iron technology – Agricultural (farming) techniques.
13 Middle Ages in Europe (500’s-1400’s) Collapse of strong central governments in Europe. The Church and Christianity provide order and meaning in people’s lives. Political system: Feudalism (land is exchanged for military service and loyalty) Economic system: Manorialism (Lords lived on manors that were famed by serfs. Serfs are bound to the land and can’t leave). Major Event: Crusades (religious wars between Christians in Europe and the Muslims for the Holy Land of Jerusalem).
Using a Guided Math format there is still time for whole-group, but you invest your efforts and resources into meeting with small-groups of students each day. Teaching 1st grade for the first time, I was using whole-group math with a single math center at the end of our math block. Then over Winter Break, our team felt like something wasn’t working. While our students were growing in math, it was definitely not at the same rate of their reading growth. So, we started to compare the 2 blocks. For reading, we use a Daily 5 model, so 80% of my instruction was in small groups during guided reading. Rather, in math, 80% of my instruction was whole group with enough time for a math center 3-4 times a week.
With small-group math, our math block does take a little longer (around 75-90 minutes), but it is completely worth it! Our math routine looks like this – Number Talks (5-7 minutes), 3 Rotations of Small Groups/Technology/Centers (17-20 minutes/each), Reflection (5 minutes).
How do you group students?
Based on our District’s Common Assessments, I group students into three math groups – green (struggling), yellow (on grade level), blue (above grade level). This is the system our 1st grade team uses for reading and math and it’s fabulous! (Read more here) I always start meeting with my green group first to ensure that they are never skipped – regardless of surprise fire alarms, change in schedule, or assemblies. Additionally, I try to add 4-5 minutes of instructional time onto this group. (Grab a free editable version of this rotation board here). Every unit, these group changes change and I don’t always have one of each group. By the end of last year, I actually had 2 blue groups and 1 yellow group, which was REALLY exciting!
What Do You Teach in Small Group?
When planning and organizing for small-group math, I use color-coded library bins – one for each of my math groups. Often the manipulatives travel from bin-to-bin, but the assessments and mini-lesson materials are group-dependent. I love having my materials at an arm’s reach, and it’s easy to restock them at the end of the day.
Typically each of my groups are working on the same skill or content standard, but each group is working with the material in different, just-right ways. As math teachers, we intentionally move students using the CSA model of instruction (concrete, semi-concrete, and abstract). My highest group (blue) spends a lot more time working with the abstract; whereas my green group needs many more concrete experiences with the content.
Within my small-groups we are working on targeted, hands-on skills. We are trying to build concrete learning experiences that eventually branch into semi-concrete and abstract understanding. From composing and decomposing numbers on rekenreks to balancing equations on a number scale to master part-part-whole with rods, we are using manipulatives every.single.day.
I’ll be honest, it’s definitely messy. My teacher table routinely looks like this – piles of place value rods, ten frames, and number lines strewn about…but that’s okay! We accomplish so much in our 17-20 minutes together, and I am loving teaching targeted skills to my small groups. For my classroom and my group of kids, guided-math is the answer!
What does a Math Block Look Like?
To launch each Guided Math block, we start by talking numbers using our Math Prompts. These are short (10ish minutes), daily exercises aimed at building number sense. While we are talking numbers, students are thinking, asking their peers questions, and explaining their own thinking all while the teacher records the thinking. You can read more about our Number Talks here and snag a year’s worth of Number Talks here.
Whole Group Mini-Lessons
After our number talks, we stay on our classroom carpet to say our learning target for the day. Then, I lead a quick 7-8 minute mini-lesson. During these mini-lessons, I focus our small-group time, share important vocabulary, model math thinking, and introduce foundation knowledge (things that ALL students need to know, regardless of math group). Some of my favorite mini-lessons include photograph hooks and online math manipuatives. We also routinely pull out some of our favorite math read alouds! All three are great for modeling math thinking for students!
When students come to my teacher table, I don’t want them worrying about bringing supplies. I did when I first started small-group math, and it killed a TON of time. With such a short time for mini-lesson, I now keep all our materials (pencils, highlighters, expo markers) in a tri-container I found at Ikea. All students need to bring is their Blue Math folder.
I’ll be honest, small-group math is definitely messy. My teacher table routinely looks like this – piles of rods, ten frames, and number lines strewn about…but that’s okay! We accomplish so much in our 17-20 minutes together.This time is hands-on and engaging. Students are building a conceptual understanding of numbers and that is critical!
Our time spent at teacher table is typically broken into a quick fluency/skill game (a 2-3 warm-up), a mini-lesson (5-6 minutes), guided practice (4-5 minutes), independent practice (4-5 minutes), and a quick assessment (2-3 minutes). Below is an example of our Making 10 to Add independent practice -which is almost always based out of manipulatives and concrete learning!
What are students doing when they’re not with the teacher?
While I am working with a group of students (6-8 students at a time), my other friends are working at the other parts of the Daily 3 – math by myself and math with a friend. I do substitute Math By Myself for DreamBox (a District Math program – technology based) as my friends are expected to log time on this program each day. HERE you can watch a FREE video about how I organize and run math centers in my classroom.
During math with a friend, I offer students 5 centers a week. Students choose which center to visit each day but they need to visit all five by the end of the week. One center is always math notebook, one center is always Versatiles or Solve the Room. I am only introducing 3 new centers each week (although we have practiced these activities in small groups at some point, so they’re not completely new). Typically, 2 of the centers are spiral review and the 3rd center relates to our current learning.
I store our math centers in large Sterilite containers (I buy them in sets of 6) with all the materials students might need.
To make guided math work, I know I have to maximize my teacher table time. So if students at centers are asking me questions or interrupting, my friends at teacher-table are losing out on their core math time. Therefore, it is essential that students know where to find resources in the classroom and they know how to use them. Our manipulatives are stored to the left of the math tubs for easy access. Students know they can grab whatever math tool they need to do their work. (Labels can be found here.)
Additionally, our number lines are hung in the front of the room from a Command Hook. This keeps the number lines organized and easily accessible to my small friends.
How Do You Keep Students From Interrupting Teacher Table?
To help build independence, I also include visual directions on each of our math bins. These visual directions include an I Can statement, as well as, the center in action. This visual directions help students know how to set-up their materials, as well as, what materials they will need. (You can snag the 1st grade visual directions here and 2nd grade here.)
These Making Numbers and 120’s Chart Puzzles will be 2 of our first 5 math centers for the year. we’ll practice these activities with partners (whole group) before we start centers, and then, when we’re ready to start rotating, students will practice with a partner.
Students are trained to get the materials they need out of the bins and then, turn the bins on their sides. The large Sterilite containers will stand on their own and it makes a perfect focus for students. Below students are working with the Fact Family Triangles (from Amazon) and differentiated dice based on their math group.
How do you differentiate your math centers?
Another component of independence during The Daily 5 and The Daily 3 is making sure that students are actively engaged in valuable work that is challenging to them. Differeniation is a key part to this independence. When they visit the individual centers/pick a tub, they know to grab their colored folder. Each bin contains the same activity, just a different set of numbers or a different pack of dice. (Green = approaching grade-level, yellow = on-grade level, blue = above-grade level)